newly diagnosed diabetes type 2 management
Type 2 diabetes is usually diagnosed using a glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This blood test indicates the average blood sugar level over the past two or three months. The results are interpreted as follows:
- Less than 5.7% is normal.
- 5.7% to 6.4% are diagnosed as prediabetes.
- A score of 6.5% or higher on two separate tests indicates the presence of diabetes.
If a glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test is not available or if you have certain conditions that interfere with a glycated hemoglobin test, your doctor may use the following tests to diagnose diabetes:
Random blood sugar test. Blood sugar values are measured in milligrams of sugar per deciliter (mg/dL) or millimoles of sugar per liter (mmol/L) of blood. No matter when you last ate, a level of 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher indicates diabetes, especially if you also have diabetes signs and symptoms such as frequent urination and extreme thirst.
Fasting blood sugar test. A blood sample is taken from you after fasting overnight. The results are interpreted as follows:
- Less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) is normal.
- 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) is diagnosed with prediabetes.
- Results of 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or higher on two separate tests are diagnosed with diabetes.
Oral glucose tolerance test. This test is less commonly used than others, except during pregnancy. You will need to fast overnight and then drink a sugary liquid at the doctor’s office. Blood sugar levels are measured periodically over the next two hours. The results are interpreted as follows:
- Less than 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L) is normal.
- A result of 140 to 199 mg/dL (7.8 to 11.0 mmol/L) is diagnosed as prediabetes.
- A result of 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher after 2 hours indicates diabetes mellitus.
examination. The American Diabetes Association recommends routine screening of diagnostic tests for type 2 diabetes in adults 45 years of age and older and in the following groups:
- People under 45 years of age who are overweight or obese and one or more risk factors for diabetes
- Women with gestational diabetes
- People diagnosed with prediabetes
- Children who are overweight or obese and have a family history of type 2 diabetes or other risk factors
Delayed diagnosis of type 2 diabetes causes these complications
A major study revealed that it takes an average of more than two years for Britons to get diagnosed with type 2 diabetes after the condition develops, and this leads to delays in getting treatment, which increases the risk of serious complications such as heart, eye or kidney problems.
Experts said the findings, which were based on data from more than 200,000 patients, show the importance of regular screening for people over the age of 40 for diabetes.
The researchers found that 2,022 participants with a blood glucose level that met the diagnostic threshold, but their GP records revealed that it took an average of 2.3 years after testing to receive a clinical diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, and more than four million people in the UK suffer from it. of type 2 diabetes.
But the study found that those with the condition wait an average of 2.3 years, sometimes more than five years, before being diagnosed.
The study, which was conducted at the University of Exeter, England, showed that women are more likely to delay than men, such as those who are not obese or whose blood sugar level is at the lower end of the diabetes range. In the UK participants gave a blood sample and their GP records were monitored for several years.
Researchers at the University of Exeter said the findings showed the importance of screening among people over 40, who are most at risk.
Dr Katie Young, lead author of the study presented at the UK Diabetes Professional Conference, said the findings “add to previous research suggesting that population-wide screening for type 2 diabetes can identify many conditions and improve patient outcomes”.
Dr Elizabeth Robertson, from Diabetes UK, explained: “Early diagnosis is the best way to avoid the devastating complications of type 2 diabetes and offers the best chance of living a long, healthy life.”
If you’re diagnosed with diabetes, your doctor or health care provider may run other tests to distinguish between type 1 and type 2 diabetes, as both conditions often require different treatments.
Your health care provider will check your glycated hemoglobin levels at least twice a year and when making any changes in treatment. Your goals for your glycated hemoglobin level may vary depending on your age and other factors. But for most people, the American Diabetes Association recommends a glycated hemoglobin level of less than 7%.
You will also undergo periodic diagnostic tests to detect complications of diabetes or co-morbidities.
Methods for treating type 2 diabetes permanently
Although type 2 diabetes cannot be completely cured yet, studies have shown that for some people it is possible to reverse it through changes in diet and weight loss, as you may be able to reach normal blood sugar levels without taking medication.
This does not mean that you are completely cured of type 2 diabetes because it is a chronic disease, which means that you do not take medication and that your blood sugar levels remain in a healthy range, there is always a chance of blood sugar returning to symptoms, but some people can go years without any problem in Glucose control and health concerns that accompany diabetes.
So how do you reverse diabetes? The key seems to be losing weight, not only does it get rid of extra fat, but sometimes losing enough weight can help you live without diabetes, especially if you only had the disease a few years ago and didn’t need insulin.
Follow a low calorie diet
Several studies in England looked at the effects of a low-calorie diet on people with diabetes. Two of the studies were following a mostly liquid diet of 625-850 calories per day for 2-5 months, followed by a less restrictive diet designed to help them maintain the weight they lost. Both studies found that nearly half of the people who participated reversed
diabetes and kept blood glucose near normal for at least 6 months. This type of diet is a bit harsh. This means that you have to work with the professionals and have a strong control over your calorie intake, but the chance of recovery can
give you a strong motivation to stick with it. Most people who reverse type 2 diabetes have lost 30 pounds or more. That’s why it’s important to start a weight loss plan as soon as possible after your diagnosis.
More physical activity is a good way to improve diabetes, but it can be difficult to lose enough weight with exercise alone. A proper, low-calorie diet combined with a significant increase in calorie burn can put you on the path to recovery.
Obesity surgeries and treatment of type 2 diabetes permanently
This type of surgery helps you lose weight by altering the course of your stomach and digestive system to limit how much you can eat. Aside from helping you lose weight, it may help reverse diabetes in other ways, although scientists don’t yet know exactly why.
One theory is that these processes affect the hormones in your gut to help your body control blood glucose. Researchers estimate that over three-quarters of people see their diabetes reverse after bariatric surgery. Sleeve gastrectomy has better long-term results than gastric banding. Bariatric surgery is a general option only when your BMI is 35 or higher.
It works best for people who have had the disease for 5 years or less and do not use insulin. If you are obese and have recently been diagnosed, this is something to talk to your doctor about. Because it’s a surgery, there are risks to it. But most people who do it end up reversing their diabetes.
Fasting can be a practical way to lose weight because it is straightforward, but it is not a primary treatment for type 2 diabetes. A very small study found that therapeutic fasting, without eating and drinking calories for a specific period of time, can help reverse type 2 diabetes. Three people with diabetes followed a diet program that consisted of fasting three times each week for several months. They ate dinner only on fasting days,
and lunch and dinner on non-fasting days, with an emphasis on low-carb meals. Two of the people in the study were able to stop taking all of their diabetes medications, and the third stopped taking three of his four medications.
Within 1-3 weeks, all three were able to stop taking insulin and lost between 10% and 18% of their body weight. Another study showed that eating very few calories (500-600) two days a week and following a normal diet the other days helped people with type 2 diabetes lose weight and lower blood sugar levels. If you want to try fasting, you should work with your doctor so that you have the right information and support to do so safely. Type 2 diabetes cannot be completely cured, but its symptoms can be eliminated for very long periods by following the appropriate diet and lifestyle optimal for your condition.